Oracle9i SQLJ Developer's Guide and Reference
Release 1 (9.0.1)

Part Number A90212-01
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Getting Started

This chapter guides you through the basics of testing your Oracle SQLJ installation and configuration and running a simple application.

Note that if you are using an Oracle database and Oracle JDBC driver, you should also verify your JDBC installation according to the Oracle9i JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference.

This chapter discusses the following topics:

Assumptions and Requirements

This section discusses basic assumptions about your environment and requirements of your system so that you can run Oracle SQLJ.

Assumptions About Your Environment

The following assumptions are made about the system on which you will be running Oracle SQLJ.

Requirements for Using Oracle SQLJ

The following are required to use Oracle SQLJ:

Special Notes Regarding the SQLJ Libraries

Be aware of the following:

Supported JDK Versions

Oracle9i SQLJ works in any JDK 1.1.x or higher Java environment. There is only one SQLJ translator file, or .jar, for use in any JDK environment and with any JDBC driver. There are several choices for the SQLJ runtime file (runtime12, runtime12ee, runtime11, runtime, or runtime-nonoracle, all .zip or .jar). Choose one according to your JDBC driver and Java environment, as discussed above in "Requirements for Using Oracle SQLJ".

General JDK MIgration Notes

Note the following regarding migration of SQLJ source code:

Be sure to use an appropriate version of the JDBC driver. See "Path and Classpath for Oracle JDBC".

Note that in Oracle9i, neither Oracle SQLJ nor Oracle JDBC support JDK 1.0.2. (Release 8.1.6 was the last Oracle JDBC release to support JDK 1.0.2, while Oracle SQLJ has never supported JDK 1.0.2.) This includes applets running in browsers that use JDK 1.0.2 except where special preparations have been made. (This chapter does not discuss applets. Refer to "Running SQLJ in Applets".)

JDK Migration Issues Regarding Type Maps

The type for JDBC type maps changed between JDK 1.1.x and JDK 1.2.x, from java.util.Dictionary to java.util.Map.

The getTypeMap() method of all SQLJ connection context classes returns a type map instance. Unfortunately, there is a limitation in the Java type system when you implement an interface, such that an implemented method must return exactly the type specified in the interface. Consider the following method signature:

java.util.Hashtable getTypeMap() { ... }

This would seem to be an ideal solution to the migration issue, because Hashtable extends Dictionary and implements Map, but it is not acceptable to the Java type system.

This has the following consequences if your SQLJ code declares connection context types:

Oracle SQLJ Backwards Compatibility

Be aware of the following regarding Oracle SQLJ backwards compatibility:

Oracle JVM Configuration

This manual presumes that system configuration issues are outside the duties of most SQLJ developers. Therefore, configuration of the Oracle Java virtual machine (JVM) is not covered here. For information about setting Java-related configuration parameters (such as JAVA_POOL_SIZE), see the Oracle9i Java Developer's Guide.

If you need information about configuring the multi-threaded server, dispatcher, or listener (which may be particularly relevant if you are coding Enterprise JavaBeans or CORBA objects), see the Oracle9i Net Services Administrator's Guide.

Checking the Installation and Configuration

Once you have verified that the above assumptions and requirements are satisfied, you must check your Oracle SQLJ installation.

Check for Installed Directories and Files

Verify that the following directories have been installed and are populated.

Directories for Oracle JDBC

If you are using one of the Oracle JDBC drivers, refer to the Oracle9i JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference for information about JDBC files that should be installed on your system.

Directories for Oracle SQLJ

Installing the Oracle9i Java environment will include, among other things, installing a sqlj directory under your [Oracle Home] directory. The sqlj directory contains the following subdirectories:

In addition, directly under [Oracle Home] is the following directory, containing utilities for all Java product areas:

Check that all these directories have been created and populated, especially lib and bin.

(The structure is similar if you download SQLJ from a Web site, such as the Oracle Technology Network address. The bin directory, with both SQLJ and JPublisher executable files, is directly under the sqlj directory.)

Set the Path and Classpath

Make sure your PATH and CLASSPATH environment variables have the necessary settings for Oracle SQLJ (and Oracle JDBC if applicable).

Path and Classpath for Oracle JDBC

If you are using one of the Oracle JDBC drivers, you will need the Oracle JDBC classes ZIP/JAR file that is appropriate for your environment.

JDK 1.1.x-compatible classes are in or .jar; JDK 1.2.x (or higher) compatible classes are in or .jar. Presuming you use a Sun Microsystems JDK, make sure the appropriate ZIP/JAR file name is in your classpath setting.

For more information about required path and classpath settings for Oracle JDBC, refer to the Oracle9i JDBC Developer's Guide and Reference.

Path and Classpath for Oracle SQLJ

Set your PATH and CLASSPATH variables as follows for Oracle SQLJ.

Path Setting

To be able to run the sqlj script (which invokes the SQLJ translator) without having to fully specify its path, verify that your PATH environment variable has been updated to include the following:

[Oracle Home]/bin

Use backward slashes for Windows. Replace [Oracle Home] with your actual Oracle Home directory.

Classpath Setting

Update your CLASSPATH environment variable to include the current directory as well as the following (either .zip or .jar):

[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/

Use backward slashes for Windows. Replace [Oracle Home] with your actual 
Oracle Home directory.

In addition, you must include one of the following runtime libraries in your classpath (either .zip or .jar):

[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/
[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/
[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/
[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/
[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/

See "Requirements for Using Oracle SQLJ" regarding which runtime library to use for your JDBC driver and Java environment.


You will not be able to run the SQLJ translator if you do not add a runtime library. You must specify a runtime library as well as the translator library in your classpath.

To see if SQLJ is installed correctly, and to see version information for SQLJ, JDBC, and Java, execute the following command:

sqlj -version-long

Verify Installation of sqljutl Package


This step is relevant only for online checking during translation, and is applicable only if you are using SQLJ stored procedures or functions with a pre-8.1.5 Oracle database (or an 8.1.5 or later database that was installed without a server-side JVM). 

The package sqljutl is required for online checking of stored procedures and functions in an Oracle database. For Oracle release 8.1.5 and later, it should have been installed automatically under the SYS schema during installation of your database's server-side JVM. To verify the installation of sqljutl, issue the following SQL command (from SQL*Plus, for example):

describe sys.sqljutl

This should result in a brief description of the package. If you get a message indicating that the package cannot be found, then you must install it manually. To do so, use SQL*Plus to run the sqljutl.sql script, which is located as follows:

[Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib/sqljutl.sql

(The sqljutl package is installed in the SYS schema.)

Consult your installation instructions if necessary.

Testing the Setup

You can test your database, JDBC, and SQLJ setup using demo applications defined in the following source files:

There is also a Java properties file,, that helps you set up your database connection. You must edit this file to set appropriate user, password, and URL values.

These demo applications are provided with your SQLJ installation in the demo directory:

[Oracle Home]/sqlj/demo

You must edit some of the source files as necessary and translate and/or compile them as appropriate (as explained in the following subsections).

The demo applications provided with the Oracle SQLJ installation refer to tables on an Oracle account with user name scott and password tiger. Most Oracle installations have this account. You can substitute other values for scott and tiger if desired.


Running the demo applications requires that the demo directory be the current directory and that the current directory (".") be in your classpath, as described earlier. 

Set Up the Runtime Connection

This section describes how to update the file to configure your Oracle connection for runtime. The file is in the demo directory and looks something like the following:

# Users should uncomment one of the following URLs or add their own.
# (If using Thin, edit as appropriate.)
# User name and password here

(User scott and password tiger are used for the demo applications.)

There is also a listing of in "Runtime Connection Properties File".

Connecting with an Oracle JDBC Driver

With the Oracle9i release, use "oci" in the connect string for the Oracle JDBC OCI driver in any new code. For backwards compatibility, however, "oci8" or "oci7" are still accepted, so you do not have to change existing code.

If you are using the JDBC Thin driver, then uncomment the thin URL line in and edit it as appropriate for your Oracle connection. Use the same URL that was specified when your JDBC driver was set up.

Connecting with a non-Oracle JDBC Driver

If you are using a non-Oracle JDBC driver, then add a line to to set the appropriate URL, as follows:


Use the same URL that was specified when your JDBC driver was set up.

You must also register the driver explicitly in your code (this is performed automatically in the demo and test programs if you use an Oracle JDBC driver). See "Driver Selection and Registration for Runtime".

In addition, in the SQLJ demo programs, you must replace the following code:

Oracle.connect(url, user, password);

with the following:

DriverManager.registerDriver(new yourdriver());
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url, user, password);
DefaultContext.setDefaultContext(new DefaultContext(conn));

Create a Table to Verify the Database

The following tests assume a table called SALES. If you compile and run TestInstallCreateTable as follows, it will create the table for you if the database and your JDBC driver are working and your connection is set up properly in the file:

java TestInstallCreateTable


If you already have a table called SALES in your schema and do not want it altered, edit to change the table name. Otherwise, your original table will be dropped and replaced.  

If you do not want to use TestInstallCreateTable, you can instead create the SALES table using the following command in a command-line processor (such as SQL*Plus):

      ITEM_NAME CHAR(30),

Verify the JDBC Driver

If you want to further test the Oracle JDBC driver, use the TestInstallJDBC demo.

Verify that your connection is set up properly in as described above, then compile and run TestInstallJDBC:

java  TestInstallJDBC 

The program should print:

Hello, JDBC! 

Verify the SQLJ Translator and Runtime

Now translate and run the TestInstallSQLJ demo, a SQLJ application that has similar functionality to TestInstallJDBC. Use the following command to translate the source:

sqlj  TestInstallSQLJ.sqlj

After a brief wait you should get your system prompt back with no error output. Note that this command also compiles the application and customizes it to use an Oracle database.

On Solaris, the sqlj script is in [Oracle Home]/bin, which should already be in your path as described above. (On Windows, use the sqlj.exe executable in the bin directory.) The SQLJ translator ZIP/JAR file has the class files for the SQLJ translator and runtime. It is located in [Oracle Home]/sqlj/lib and should already be in your classpath as described above.

Now run the application:

java  TestInstallSQLJ

The program should print:

Hello, SQLJ!

Verify the SQLJ Translator Connection to the Database

If the SQLJ translator is able to connect to a database, then it can provide online semantics-checking of your SQL operations during translation. The SQLJ translator is written in Java and uses JDBC to get information it needs from a database connection that you specify. You provide the connection parameters for online semantics-checking using the sqlj script command line or using a SQLJ properties file (called by default).

While still in the demo directory, edit the file and update, comment, or uncomment the sqlj.password, sqlj.url, and sqlj.driver lines, as appropriate, to reflect your database connection information, as you did in the file. For some assistance, see the comments in the file.

Following is an example of what the appropriate driver, URL, and password settings might be if you are using the Oracle JDBC OCI driver (the user name will be discussed next):


Online semantics-checking is enabled as soon as you specify a user name for the translation-time connection. You can specify the user name either by uncommenting the sqlj.user line in the file or by using the -user command-line option. (The user, password, URL, and driver options all can be set either on the command line or in the properties file. This is explained in "Connection Options".)

You can test online semantics-checking by translating the file TestInstallSQLJChecker.sqlj (located in the demo directory) as follows (or using another user name if appropriate):

sqlj -user=scott TestInstallSQLJChecker.sqlj

This should produce the following error message if you are using one of the Oracle JDBC drivers:

TestInstallSQLJChecker.sqlj:41: Warning: Unable to check SQL query. Error 
returned by database is: ORA-00904: invalid column name

Edit TestInstallSQLJChecker.sqlj to fix the error on line 41. The column name should be ITEM_NAME instead of ITEM_NAMAE. Once you make this change, you can translate and run the application without error using the following commands:

sqlj -user=scott TestInstallSQLJChecker.sqlj
java  TestInstallSQLJChecker

If everything works, this prints:

Hello, SQLJ Checker!

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